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Ancestral allele of DNA polymerase gamma modifies antiviral tolerance

Ethical aspects

Human samples were collected and used with informed consent, according to the Helsinki Declaration and approved by the Ethical Review Board of Kuopio University Central Hospital (410/2019). Animal experimental procedures were approved by the Animal Experimental Board of Finland (ESAVI/689/4.10.07/2015 and ESAVI/3686/2021). Patient and control materials included fibroblasts (established from skin biopsies from individuals’ forearms), blood and autopsy-derived brain samples. Control samples were from voluntary healthy individuals (fibroblasts and sera) and, for brains, from people who died acutely with a non-central-nervous-system-disease cause. Autopsy sample collection was approved by the governmental office for social topics and health.

Antibodies, antisera and kits

Information of the antibodies and oligonucleotide sequences is provided in Supplementary Table 6. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for mouse IFNα all subtypes (42115-1), mouse IFNβ (42410-1), mouse IL-6 (BMS603HS), human IL-6 (BMS213HS) and human TNF (HSTA00E) and the CellTiter-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay kit (Promega) were commercially purchased, and assays were performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

MIRAS mouse generation

MIRAS knock-in mice were generated and maintained in the C57BL/6JOlaHsd background carrying two variants homologous to mutations of patients with MIRAS on mouse chromosome 7 (NCBI Reference Sequence: NC_000073.7): c.2177G>C into exon 13 (p.W726S); c.3362A>G into exon 21 (p.E1121G). In brief, the pL253 construct carrying exons 4–22 of the Polg1 genomic region carrying the MIRAS variants was transfected into embryonic stem (ES) cells by electroporation and homologous recombination introduced to the endogenous gene. ES clones with successful recombination were selected based on neomycin resistance. The mutations were confirmed using Southern blot hybridization, PCR and DNA sequencing (DNA-seq). Correct ES clones were injected into blastocysts and implanted into pseudopregnant female mice. Lines with verified germ-line transmission were crossed with mice expressing FLP recombinase to remove the neomycin cassette. The correct genotypes of MIRAS mice were confirmed by DNA-seq. The genotypes were born in Mendelian frequencies, with no gross phenotypic differences between the groups. Mice were housed in controlled rooms at 22 °C under a 12 h–12 h light–dark cycle and with ad libitum access to food and water, and were regularly monitored for weight and food consumption. Further details are provided in Extended Data Fig. 6.

Cell culture and transfection

Human primary dermal fibroblasts (of the first 8 passages; ±2 passage difference across cell lines of different individuals) that were genetically screened for MIRAS point mutations (by DNA-seq) were used for analyses. Fibroblasts were cultured in DMEM (Lonza; with 4.5 g l−1 glucose) supplemented with 10% (v/v) heat-inactivated FBS (Lonza), 50 U ml−1 penicillin–streptomycin (Gibco), 0.05 mg ml−1 uridine (Calbiochem) and 2 mM GlutaMAX (Gibco) at 37 °C under 5% CO2, with fresh medium replaced every 2 days, and were tested negative for mycoplasma. Transfection of synthetic dsDNA50 and dsRNA (poly(I:C), Sigma-Aldrich) was performed using FuGENE HD transfection reagent (Promega). In brief, around 2 × 105 cells were plated onto six-well dishes the day before transfection and transfected with 2.5 μg of dsDNA or dsRNA per well with a 1:2 ratio of nucleic acid:transfection reagent, according to the manufacturer’s instructions (sequence details are provided in Supplementary Table 6). For expression of RIG-I or MAVS, fibroblasts were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-Flag containing RIG-I (N) or MAVS51 before poly(I:C) transfection 24 h later and incubated for another 7 h before collection.

Patient genetic mutation correction in iPSCs

For MIRAS POLG1 genetic correction, electroporation with CRISPR–Cas9 system components was performed as previously described52. We used high-efficiency gRNA and a dsDNA donor template including the desired correction along with a novel restriction site for SalI (GˆTCGAC). A total of 55 monoclonal colonies was individually screened by SalI digestion and successful correction was validated by Sanger sequencing. The chromosomal integrity was confirmed by G-banding performed by Anàlisis Mèdiques Barcelona. A list of the gRNA, donor template and primers for top-six off-target Sanger sequencing (CRISPOR, https://benchling.com) is provided in Supplementary Table 6.

Differentiation of iPSCs into iFLCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were cultured on Matrigel-coated (Corning) plates in E8 medium (Thermo Fisher Scientific) until 90–100% confluency, then split and plated in suspension in ultra-low attachment plates containing hES medium without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and supplemented with 5 µM ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632, Selleckchem). The medium without ROCK inhibitor was refreshed every other day until day 14, when the aggregates were plated onto gelatin-coated plates containing DMEM/F12 + 20% FBS (Thermo Fisher Scientific) to allow for expansion. The cells were kept for at least 5 passages to obtain induced fibroblast-like cells (iFLCs).


RNA from cells was extracted using the RNeasy kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For tissues, homogenization was first performed with ceramic beads using Precellys 24 homogenizer (Precellys) before RNA extraction using the Trizol/chloroform method followed by purification using the RNeasy kit. DNase-treated RNA (normalized across samples) was used for cDNA synthesis using the Maxima first-strand cDNA synthesis kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) before qPCR using SensiFAST SYBR No-ROX kit (Bioline) and primers (details in Supplementary Table 6) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The amplification level of the assayed gene (2–4 technical replicates per controls and patients) was normalized to ACTB and analysed using the \({2}^{-\Delta \Delta {C}_{{\rm{t}}}}\) method. mtDNA qPCR was performed on DNA extracted using the DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen) as described above and previously53 and normalized to nuclear ACTB or B2M. For viral RNA analyses, TBEV NS5 RNA54 or murine hepatitis virus55 RNA amount was detected using primers and Taqman probes against the targeted viral genome, using the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step Master Mix (Thermo Fisher Scientific) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The copy number for TBEV NS5 RNA was determined using a standard curve generated by serial dilution of TBEV-isolated NS5 RNA. Details of the primers are provided in Supplementary Table 6.

Cytosolic extraction and detection of cytosolic mtRNA/mtDNA

Pelleted cells were resuspended in isolation buffer (20 mM HEPES-KOH pH 7.6, 220 mM mannitol, 70 mM sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 1× protease inhibitor (Thermo Fisher Scientific)) and divided into two equal fractions: fraction 1, purify total cellular RNA or DNA; and fraction 2, subcellular fractionation to isolate cytosolic RNA or DNA. In brief, fraction 2 was homogenized in around 900 μl of suspension buffer in a handheld Dounce tissue homogenizer with glass pestle (~15 strokes). The homogenate was centrifuged at 800 g for 5 min at 4 °C and the resulting supernatant was centrifuged at 12,000 g for 10 min at 4 °C. The supernatants were collected and centrifuged at 17,000 g for 15 min at 4 °C to purify the cytosolic fraction. The whole-cell (fraction 1) and cytosolic (of fraction 2) fractions were subjected to DNA or RNA purification using the RNeasy Kit or DNAeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen) and eluted into an equal volume of water. RNA eluate was treated with DNase before cDNA production. Equal volume of cDNA or DNA eluate were used for qPCR using nuclear gene primers (ACTB or B2M) or mitochondrial genome-specific primers (MT-CYB and MT-CO1). mtDNA/RNA abundance in whole cells served as normalization controls for their values obtained from cytosolic fractions18. The purity of cytosolic fraction was examined by western blotting.

In vivo BrdU labelling and south-western analyses

Mice receiving an intraperitoneal injection of 300 μg of BrdU (BD Biosiences) per gram of mouse weight were euthanized 24 h after injection. DNA was isolated by routine phenol–chloroform extraction. XhoI-digested DNA was separated using agarose gel electrophoresis and blotted onto Hybond N+ membranes (Amersham) as described previously53. Immunodetection was performed using anti-BrdU antibodies, and total mtDNA was detected using Southern hybridization as described previously56.

Viral stocks and infections of fibroblasts

The European subtype of TBEV was isolated from human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH; passage 1) infected with tick collected in Finland57; SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from a patient with COVID-19 on human non-small cell lung cancer (Calu-1) cells58, passaged on African green monkey kidney (Vero E6) cells expressing type II membrane serine protease 2 (TMRSS2) via lentivirus transduction59; the KOS strain of herpes simplex virus 1, HSV-160, was passaged on Vero cells. SK-N-SH (https://www.atcc.org/products/htb-11), Calu-1 (https://www.atcc.org/products/htb-54), Vero E6 (https://www.atcc.org/products/crl-1586) and Vero (https://www.atcc.org/products/ccl-81) cells were purchased from ATCC. The virus work was performed under bio-safety level 3 (BSL-3) conditions for TBEV and SARS-CoV-2 and under BSL-2 conditions for HSV-1. The ability of viruses to infect fibroblasts was tested by inoculating cells grown on a 96-well plate with serially ten-fold diluted virus stocks and the optimal viral dilution was selected based on the dilution showing the most prominent difference in infected cells number between wild-type control and MIRAS cells using immunofluorescence.

For fibroblast infection, around 2 × 105 fibroblast cells were grown on six-well plates the day before (or ~1 × 105 iFLCs 2 days before) being inoculated with 500 µl of 1:20 diluted TBEV, 1:10 diluted SARS-CoV-2 or 1:5,000 diluted HSV-1 (multiplicity of infection (MOI) of ~0.1–1). After 1 h (at 37 °C, 5% CO2), the inocula were removed, the cells were washed twice with conditioned medium, 3 ml of fresh medium was added to each well and the plates were incubated at 37 °C under 5% CO2 for 6, 24 or 48 h. Non-treated cells that were plated simultaneously alongside those subjected to viral infection were used as the uninfected control. At the end of incubation, the cells were washed twice with PBS and were lysed in RIPA buffer (50 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 0.1% SDS, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, pH 8.0) supplemented with EDTA-free protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), at 150 µl per well for western blotting analyses. For DNA/RNA analyses, 60 µl of RIPA lysate was mixed with TRIzol Reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific) before DNA or RNA extraction and RT–qPCR or qPCR as described in relevant Methods section. For the immunofluorescence assay, infected cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA, in PBS) and incubated for 15 min at room temperature. The cells were washed once with PBS, permeabilized for 5 min at room temperature with Tris-buffered saline, pH 7.4 supplemented with 0.25% Triton X-100 and 3% (w/v) of bovine serum albumin, and replaced with PBS. Virus inactivation was confirmed by UV-inactivation with a dose of 500 mJ cm−2 before incubation with primary antibodies and processed as described below.

Immunofluorescence microscopy

The PFA-fixed viral-infected cells were stained with primary antibodies (Supplementary Table 6) overnight at 4 °C and for 1 h at room temperature with secondary antibodies. Three washes with PBS were included between each step. Coverslips were mounted with VECTASHIELD anti-fade mounting medium containing DAPI (Vector Laboratories). Images were acquired using the Zeiss AxioImager epifluorescence microscope. Quantification of the immunofluorescence signal was performed using CellProfiler (v.4.2.6)61.

Gel electrophoresis and western blotting

Cells lysed in RIPA buffer (150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, 50 mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.0) were measured for protein concentration using the BCA assay (Pierce) and equal amounts of protein samples were resuspended into SDS–PAGE loading dye (50 mM Tris-Cl, pH 6.8, 100 mM dithiothreitol, 2% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate, 10% (w/v) glycerol, 0.1% (w/v) bromophenol blue), boiled for 5–10 min at 95 °C before SDS–PAGE analysis using the 4–20% gradient gel (Bio-Rad) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

For mitochondrial protein analyses, mitochondria were isolated from tissue using differential centrifugation as described previously62. The clarified mitochondrial pellets were resuspended into buffer (20 mM HEPES-KOH pH 7.6, 220 mM mannitol, 70 mM sucrose, 1 mM EDTA) and analysed using SDS–PAGE, or solubilized using 1% (w/v) n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) in 1.5 M α-amino n-caproic acid for 30 min on ice for blue-native (BN) electrophoresis analysis. DDM-solubilized samples were centrifuged at 20,000g for 20 min at 4 °C. The clarified supernatants were measured for protein concentration using the BCA assay and equal amounts of protein samples were mixed with BN loading dye (0.25% (w/v) Coomassie blue G250 (MP Biomedicals), 75 mM α-amino n-caproic acid) before BN electrophoresis using cathode buffer (50 mM tricine, 15 mM Bis-Tris, pH 7.0, 0.02% (w/v) Coomassie blue G250) and anode buffer (50 mM Bis-Tris, pH 7.0) on self-casted 1-mm-thick 5–12% gradient polyacrylamide gels. Separation part of the gel was prepared by mixing solution of 5 and 12% acrylamide (acrylamide:bisacrylamide 37.5:1) in 0.5 M α-amino n-caproic acid, 50 mM Bis-Tris (pH 7.0), 11 or 20% (w/v) glycerol, 0.027% ammonium persulfate, 0.1% TEMED. Separation gel was overlayed with a 4% acrylamide stacking gel solution as described above (no glycerol; but 0.084% ammonium persulfate, 0.17% TEMED).

After electrophoresis, gels were transferred onto 0.45 μm PVDF membranes using a semidry transfer (SDS–PAGE) or wet transfer (BN-PAGE) apparatus (Bio-Rad) before western blotting using the desired antibodies (details are provided in Supplementary Table 6). Images were obtained using ChemiDoc XRS+ imaging machine (Bio-Rad) and signals were quantified using Image Lab (v.6.1.0 build 7; Bio-Rad) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The protein-of-interest signal was normalized to the loading control signal in the sample.

Mouse behavioural analyses


An Exer-6M treadmill (Columbus Instrument) was used as described previously63. The tests were completed as a set of five independent trials over 1 h. The running time was counted when the mouse stopped for five continuous seconds and did not continue.


The rotating rod system (Rota-Rod; Ugo Basile, 47600) with a PVC drum (diameter of 44 mm) was used as described previously64. The animals were trained for three consecutive days before the test.

Footprint analyses to detect ataxia

Mouse feet were painted with non-toxic washable paint (separate colours for hind- and forelimbs) and the mouse was allowed to walk through a tunnel on paper. The stride length and width were measured. Scoring data were obtained using at least two consecutive steps from each foot.

Infection of mice, histology and immunohistochemistry

Mice were transported to the BSL-3 facility and acclimatized to individually ventilated biocontainment cages (ISOcage; Scanbur) for 7 days before being inoculated intraperitoneally with 1,000 plaque-forming units of TBEV. Mice were euthanized at the indicated days after infection and sera were collected for cytokine analyses using commercially purchased ELISA kits (see the ‘Antibodies, antisera and kits’ section). For DNA, RNA or protein analyses (see the relevant Methods section), tissues were collected into TRIzol Reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific). For histology, liver samples were fixed in cold 4% (v/v) PFA in PBS and incubated in PBS supplemented with 30% (w/v) sucrose at 4 °C for 3 days before routine embedding in OCT compound and trimmed into sections with a thickness of 6–8 μm for haematoxylin and eosin or ORO staining according to the standard protocol65. For immunohistochemical staining, liver sections were stained with the following antibodies: CD3 (T cell marker), CD4 (helper T cell marker), CD8b (cytotoxic T cell marker) or CD68 (macrophage marker) using the ImmPRESS HRP goat anti-rat IgG (Mouse Adsorbed) Polymer Kit (Vector Laboratories, MP-7444), and with haematoxylin counterstaining according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Liver inflammation severity was semi-quantitatively scored and the total number of immune cell infiltrations was quantified from three unique visual fields at ×5 magnification (15,370,559 μm2 per view) per mouse liver section. The area (μm2) of the largest infiltrate detected per view was measured using ImageJ (2.0.0-rc-69/1.52n; https://imagej.net/ij/). Liver ORO and CD protein signal was quantified using CellProfiler (v.4.2.6)61 after pixel classification using ilastik (v.1.3.3)66.

For brain histology, brain halves (cut in midline) were fixed in PFA for 48 h, then stored in 70% (v/v) alcohol until processing. They were trimmed and routinely paraffin-wax embedded. Consecutive sections (3–4 µm) were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and eosin or subjected to immunohistochemical staining for TBEV antigen, CD3 (T cell marker), CD45R/B220 (B cell marker) and IBA1 (marker of macrophages and microglial cells), according to previously published protocols67,68. Mouse brain GABAergic marker staining was performed using GAD67 and GABRB2 antibodies followed by blinded semi-quantitative scoring by A.P. (neuropathologist). Details of the antibodies are provided in Supplementary Table 6.

Bulk RNA-seq analysis

RNA-seq was performed at the Biomedicum Functional Genomics Unit (University of Helsinki) according to the Drop-seq protocol as described previously69,70. A total of 10 ng of extracted RNA was used as the starting material. The quality of the sequencing libraries was assessed using the TapeStation DNA High Sensitivity Assay (Agilent). The libraries were sequenced on the Illumina NextSeq 500 system70. For read alignment and generation of digital expression data, raw sequencing data were inspected using FastQC and multiQC71,72. Subsequently, reads were filtered to remove low-quality reads and reads shorter than 20 bp using Trimmomatic73. Reads passing the filter were then processed further using Drop-seq tools according to the pipeline described69 (v.2.3.0). In brief, the raw, filtered read libraries were converted to sorted BAM files using Picard tools (http://broadinstitute.github.io/picard). This was followed by tagging reads with sample specific barcodes and unique molecular identifiers (UMIs). Tagged reads were then trimmed for 5′ adapters and 3′ poly A tails. Alignment ready reads were converted from BAM-formatted files to fastq files that were used as an input for STAR aligner74. Alignments were performed using the GRCm38 (mouse) reference genome and GENCODE mouse release 28 or the GRCh38 (human) reference genome and GENCODE human release 33 comprehensive gene annotation files75 with default STAR settings. After the alignment, the uniquely aligned reads were sorted and merged with the previous unaligned tagged BAM file to regain barcodes and UMIs that were lost during the alignment step. Next, annotation tags were added to the aligned and barcode-tagged BAM files to complete the alignment process. Finally, Drop-seq tools were used to detect and correct systematic synthesis errors present in sample barcode sequences. Digital expression matrices were then created by counting the total number of unique UMI sequences (UMI sequences that differ by only a single base were merged together) for each transcript. Differential expression analysis was performed with DESeq2 (using the default settings) in the R environment76.

Untargeted metabolomics

Metabolites were extracted from 20 mg of mouse cerebral cortex in hot ethanol. In brief, frozen samples were homogenized in 0.5 ml 70% (v/v) ethanol with ceramic beads using a Precellys 24 homogenizer (Precellys). Before and after homogenization, the samples were kept frozen (at ≤−20 °C). The samples were transferred to a 15 ml tube with washing using 0.5 ml of 70% (v/v) ethanol. To each tube, we added 7 ml of 70% (v/v) ethanol that was preheated at 75 °C, immediately vortexed and placed the sample into a water bath at 75 °C for 1 min followed vortexing once. The content was cooled down in cold bath at −20 °C before being centrifuged for 10 min (4 °C). The clear supernatant was transferred to a new tube and stored at −80 °C until analysis using mass spectrometry (MS).

Untargeted metabolite profiling was performed using flow injection analysis on the Agilent 6550 QTOF instrument (Agilent) using negative ionization, 4 GHz high-resolution acquisition and scanning in MS1 mode between m/z 50 and m/z 1,000 at 1.4 Hz. The solvent was 60:40 isopropanol:water supplemented with 1 mM NH4F at pH 9.0, as well as 10 nM hexakis(1H,1H,3H-tetrafluoropropoxy)phosphazine and 80 nM taurochloric acid for online mass calibration. The seven batches were analysed sequentially. Within each batch, the injection sequence was randomized. Data were acquired in profile mode, centroided and analysed using MATLAB (MathWorks). Missing values were filled by recursion in the raw data. After identification of consensus centroids across all of the samples, ions were putatively annotated by accurate mass and isotopic patterns. Starting from the HMDB v.4.0 database, we generated a list of expected ions including deprotonated, fluorinated and all major adducts found under these conditions. All formulas matching the measured mass within a mass tolerance of 0.001 Da were enumerated. As this method does not use chromatographic separation or in-depth MS2 characterization, it is not possible to distinguish between compounds with an identical molecular formula. The confidence of annotation reflects level 4 but, in practice, in the case of intermediates of primary metabolism, it is higher because they are the most abundant metabolites in cells. The resulting data matrix included 1,943 ions that could be matched to deprotonated metabolites listed in HMDB v.3.0.


Protein was extracted from 50 mg of frozen brain autopsy samples using TRIzol Reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Extracted protein pellets were resuspended into 100 μl of buffer containing 6 M urea, 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate, pH 8 and boiled for 5–10 min at 95 °C. The protein concentration was estimated using the BCA assay (Pierce) and equal amounts of protein samples were aggregated on amine beads77. For on-bead digestion, 50 mm ammonium bicarbonate buffer was added to the beads. Proteins were reduced with 10 mM DTT for 30 min at 37 °C and alkylated with 20 mM IAA for 30 min at room temperature in dark, after which 0.5 µg of trypsin was added, and trypsin digestion was performed overnight at 37 °C. Beads were separated using a magnet, the supernatant was transferred to new tube and acidified, and the tryptic peptides were desalted using C18 StageTips for MS analysis. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS (LC–MS/MS) analysis of the resulting peptides was performed using the Easy nLC1000 liquid chromatography system (Thermo Electron) coupled to a QExactive HF Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron) with a nanoelectrospray ion source (EasySpray, Thermo Electron). The LC separation of peptides was performed using the EasySpray C18 analytical column (2 µm particle size, 100 Å, 75 μm inner diameter and 25 cm length; Thermo Fisher Scientific). Peptides were separated over a 90 min gradient from 2% to 30% (v/v) acetonitrile in 0.1% (v/v) formic acid, after which the column was washed using 90% (v/v) acetonitrile in 0.1% (v/v) formic acid for 20 min (flow rate 0.3 μl min−1). All LC–MS/MS analyses were operated in data-dependent mode where the most intense peptides were automatically selected for fragmentation by high-energy collision-induced dissociation. For data analysis, raw files from LC–MS/MS analyses were submitted to MaxQuant (v. for peptide/protein identification and label-free quantification. Parameters were as follows: carbamidomethyl (C) was set as a fixed modification; protein N-acetylation and methionine oxidation as variable modifications; first search error window of 20 ppm and main search error of 6 ppm; the trypsin without proline restriction enzyme option was used, with two allowed miscleavages; minimal unique peptides was set to one; and the FDR allowed was 0.01 (1%) for peptide and protein identification. The UniProt human database (September 2018) was used for the database searches. MaxQuant output files (proteinGroups.txt) were loaded into Perseus (v. for further data filtering and statistical analysis. Identifications from potential contaminants and reversed sequences were removed, and normalized intensities (LFQ) were log10-transformed. Next, a criteria of at least 50% valid values in at least one group was used to filter the results. All zero intensity values were replaced using noise values of the normal distribution of each sample. Protein abundances were compared using a two-sample Student’s t-test with P < 0.05 as the criteria for a statistically significant difference between the two groups.

Functional and pathway enrichment analyses

Qiagen Ingenuity Pathway Analyses (Qiagen; https://digitalinsights.qiagen.com/IPA), g:Profiler80 (https://biit.cs.ut.ee/gprofiler) toolset and KEGG database81 were used for the analyses of transcriptome, metabolome and/or proteome datasets. For immune pathway analyses, we further used the manually curated InnateDB database82 (https://www.innatedb.com/index.jsp).

Genotype–phenotype association analyses

Analyses were performed on the data from the FinnGen study, a large-scale genomics initiative that has analysed Finnish Biobank samples and correlated genetic variation with health data to understand disease mechanisms and predispositions6. The mixed-model logistic regression method SAIGE (R package developed with Rcpp for genome-wide association tests in large-scale datasets and biobanks) was used for association analysis and included the following covariates in the model: sex, age, genotyping batch and ten principle components. These results are from 3,095 end points, 16,962,023 variants and 309,154 individuals in data freeze 7 (https://r7.finngen.fi/).

Statistical analyses

Statistical analyses as described in the figure legends were performed either using Microsoft Excel v.16.80, GraphPad Prism v.10.1.1 for macOS (GraphPad, www.graphpad.com) or using toolsets as indicated in the respective figure legends and in relevant method sections. GraphPad Prism v.10.1.1 as described above was used to create box and whisker plots using the standard five-number summary: minimum, lower quartile (25th percentile), median (50th percentile), upper quartile (75th percentile) and maximum, with whiskers extending down to the minimum and up to the maximum value; bar charts show the mean ± s.e.m. The datapoints for each value are superimposed on the plot. No statistical methods were used to predetermine the sample size. Sample sizes were chosen to ensure adequate power and to account for potential interindividual/animal, gender and age variance (age- and sex-matched samples were used as controls). The number of biologically independent mouse or human samples is described in the respective figure legends.

Reporting summary

Further information on research design is available in the Nature Portfolio Reporting Summary linked to this article.

Fonte original Nature.com

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